Anesthetic Adjunct


The field of anesthesia is now 150 years old and consists of inhalation, parenteral, and local anesthetics, as well as anesthetic adjunct agents that can improve the quality and reduce the side effects of the anesthetic procedure. While anesthetics, based on their diverse structures and side-effect profiles, were thought to produce their effects by a simple perturbation of the lipid/protein components of the cell membrane – the unitary theory of anesthesia – recent findings suggest that there may indeed be discrete targets for anesthetic effects. These include a variety of voltage-gated ion channels, including those for potassium, calcium, and sodium, as well as the γ-amino butyric acidA (GABAA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and neuronal nicotinic ligand-gated ion channels.


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